The six dimensions, as described by Ninian Smart, are as follows: Each one seeks to explain a different aspect, or manifestation of the phenomenon of the religious experience.
Affective neuroscience proposes that several levels of emotions — ranging from primary ones such as LUST or FEAR up to higher emotions such as spirituality — interact on a neural level. The present study aimed to further explore this theory. Correlation analyses confirmed the link between primary and higher emotions as well as their relation to personality.
Further regression analyses indicated that personality dimensions mediate the relationship between primary and higher emotions. Future studies might focus on implications for clinical groups. Introduction From an evolutionary standpoint, the experience of spirituality and religiousness can be seen as the result of the same advantageous neuronal development responsible for the human tendency to socialize and create communities Kirkpatrick, However, studying the neurobiology of spiritual and religious experiences and well-being is a complicated task Perroud, Affective Neuroscience Affective neuroscience AN is an interdisciplinary field exploring the neuronal mechanisms of emotions.
It combines neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood. Moreover, AN emphasizes the importance of primary-process subcortical brain emotion systems: Panksepp described a continuity of primal emotional systems in the subcortical-limbic circuits of selected areas in the mammalian brain.
When stimulated these interacting systems evoke seven primary emotions: The SEEKING system, arising from the ventral tegmental area, encourages foraging, exploration, investigation, curiosity, interest and expectancy.
As a result dopamine fires each time the mammal explores its environment Depue and Collins, Furthermore, these — genetically influenced Montag et al. Primary Emotions and Personality Personality dimensions, most prominently described through the Big Five Extraversion, Neuroticism, Openness, Consciousness, and Agreeablenessare regarded as universal, intraindividually constant, and interindividually different McCrae and Costa, ; Soldz and Vaillant, ; Bouchard and Loehlin, and are also, at least in part, inheritable Loehlin et al.
From an evolutionary perspective, the Big Five might have had a possibly adaptive value already in prehistoric times Buss, with their development representing the combination of gene expression with the influence of environmental factors Goldberg, In correspondence to this, differences in personality structure in general Uher and Asendorpf, and specifically in Big Five personality factors King and Figueredo, can also be observed in big apes.
Furthermore, personality dimensions — especially Neuroticism — have also been linked to various aspects of mental health Khan et al. Davis and Panksepp report substantial connections between primary emotions and the Big Five: Conscientiousness was the only personality factor with no connection to the primary emotions Abella et al.
By early adulthood, the resulting personality is relatively stable across time when sufficiently matured upper brain regions allow the prefrontal cortex to regulate arising emotions Costa and McCrae, for an overview see; McCrae and Costa, Spirituality and Well-Being Within the framework of AN, spirituality has been named as a higher-order affective human attribute and as an important factor in research related to personality and mental health Davis and Panksepp, In detail, Davis et al.
Consequently, it applies to theistic e. Furthermore, spirituality may be closely connected to emotion regulation, as the relationship a higher power e.
In addition, suggestions have been made for the expansion of the classic Big Five to include Spirituality as a sixth factor Piedmont, ; MacDonald, ; Unterrainer et al.
This is supported by studies reporting positive correlations of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion with several aspects of religiousness or spirituality Saroglou, ; Unterrainer et al.
Moreover, mystical or transcendental experiences are mostly reported by individuals with higher levels of Extraversion and Openness Unterrainer et al. Likewise, a meta-analytic review reported increased Openness as related to a more open or mature religiousness and spirituality as well as to less religious fundamentalism Saroglou, Furthermore, dimensions of religiosity and spirituality have been linked to various concepts of mental health and illness: SWB was demonstrated to be positively correlated with various indicators of mental health such as more positive affective states and adequate stress coping strategies in clinical as well as non-clinical samples Ledbetter et al.
While the sub-dimensions of EWB are not necessarily connected to religion, they are strongly connected to both religiosity and subjective well-being. Therefore, they might mediate the relationship between religiosity and health Unterrainer et al.
Regarding the sub-dimensions of RWB, General Religiosity has a stronger connection to religious institutions, communities or traditions, while Connectedness has a stronger deinstitutionalized character including the general belief in a higher power.
Lastly, Hope Transcendent implies a lower amount of existential fear as well as the hope for a better life after death Unterrainer et al. The Present Study In the present work, and in line with previous research Davis and Panksepp, ; Montag and Panksepp,we assumed a substantial relationship between primary emotions, personality factors and spirituality: Materials and Methods Sample Description and Procedure Participants were included in the study if they were German speaking, between 18 and 30 years of age and had either finished an apprenticeship or were students at the University of Graz, Austria.
Participants were recruited via social media and e-mail distribution lists. Based on the established parameters Cohen,we calculated a required sample size of participants.
Recruitment status was checked regularly and stopped when the number of participants that had completed all questionnaires exceeded the required sample size.A substantial interaction between primary emotions, personality dimensions, and religious/spiritual well-being could be confirmed.
From a developmental perspective, cortical top-down regulation might influence religious/spiritual well-being by forming relevant personality dimensions. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Identifying Successful Families: An Overview of Constructs and Selected Measures Maria Krysan, Kristin coming from a family strengths research perspective, proposes that a successful or strong family "creates a sense of positive family identity, promotes satisfying and fulfilling interaction.
The video above was released by Trey Smith / God in a Nutshell project on April 22nd, takes an easy journey through some of the Theory of Evolution's modern troubles. The Theory of Evolution is often promoted by late night comics, such as Bill Maher, .
Christian Smith examined the secularization of American public life between and He noted that in a Protestant establishment thoroughly dominated American culture and its public institutions.
In American Evangelicalism, Christian Smith answers the question of what it means to have a strong religious faith. Smith claims that strength is conceptualized and measured on the self-definition, values, and purpose of the group in question.
He categorizes religious strength into six dist. Strictly speaking, psychology of religion consists of the application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to the diverse contents of the religious traditions as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals.
The extraordinary range of methods and frameworks can be helpfully summed up in terms of the classic distinction.