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Transition forces[ edit ] InPeter Drucker outlined a possible evolution of capitalistic society in his book Post-Capitalist Society. The classes of a fully post-capitalist society are expected to be divided into knowledge workers or service workers, in contrast to the capitalists and proletarians of a capitalist society.
In the book, Drucker estimated the transformation to post-capitalism would be completed in — Drucker also argued for rethinking the concept of intellectual property by creating a universal licensing system. Post-capitalism is expected to arise with further advances in automation and information sharing — both of which cause production costs to approach zero.
A first driver is a new dynamic that information technology brought to the workplace. Through increased connectivity the reachability of employees was improved and the lines between working hours and free time became blurred.
While some industries only continued to exist due to information scarcity and secrecy, the market became disrupted by the emergence of new competitors that were able to enter the market and benefit from large sources of publicly-available information.
A result of this was the increase in acquisition activities since the creation dun business plan gratuit s which tried to counter decreasing margins through consolidation and monopoly building. A third dynamic that emerged from new technology was crowd-funding and crowd-sourcing.
Crowd-funding led to a new option for corporate finance, which was often achieved for socially-accepted innovations. Crowd-sourcing on the other hand challenged the traditional employee-employer relationship under capitalism as people started to voluntarily contribute to product developments with a distinctive skill, such as programming or designing.
A major reward for people engaged in crowd-sourcing is not monetary compensation, but the intrinsic reward of having a stake in an active development.
In his book PostCapitalism: A Guide to our FuturePaul Mason argues that centralized planning, even with the advanced technology of today, is unachievable.
For post-capitalism to come from a socialist standpoint, a political and cultural transformation would need to occur alongside the economic transformation. Helpful definitions involving socialism: Socialisman economic system based on public or cooperative ownership of the means of production where production is carried out to directly produce use-valuethat includes a moneyless form of accounting such as physical resource accounting or labor-time and based on the direct production of utility rather than on the capitalist laws of accumulation and value.
Some models of socialism imply economic planning for the allocation of the factors of production in place of capital marketswhile other models of socialism retain market-based allocation of capital goods.
Some Marxists believe socialism would eventually in turn evolve into communism.
Planned socialisma type of socialism where some form of economic planning substitutes markets for allocating the factors of production and for coordinating the economy.
There are various types of planning, including central planning and decentralized planning ; material balance planninginput-output planning and computerized planning.
Market socialisma type of socialism based on socialization and public or cooperative ownership of the means of production, but retains monetary calculation and market competition and utilizes markets as the primary way of allocating the factors of production. Communalisma political theory based on the writings of Murray Bookchin.
Bookchin developed Communalism after he broke with anarchism believing it to be individualist and lifestylist. It is based on libertarian municipalismconfederalism and social ecology.
The Case for a Participatory Economy, Robin Hahnel describes a post-capitalist economy called the participatory economy. The participatory economy focuses on the participation of all citizens through the creation of worker councils and consumer councils.
Hahnel emphasizes the direct participation of worker and consumers rather than appointing representatives. The councils are concerned with large-scale issues of production and consumption and are broken into various bodies tasked with researching future development projects.
In a participatory economy, economic rewards would be offered according to need, the amount of which would be determined democratically by the workers council. Hahnel also calls for "economic justice" by rewarding people for their effort and diligence rather than accomplishments or prior ownership.
Consumption rights are then rewarded according to the effort ratings. The worker has the choice to decide what they consume using their consumption rights.
Hahnel does not address the idea of money, currency, or how consumption rights would be tracked. Planning in a participatory economy is done through the councils. The process is horizontal across the committees as opposed to vertical.
All council members, the workers and consumers, participate directly in planning unlike in Soviet-type economies and other democratic planning proposals in which planning is done by representatives. Planning is an iterative procedure, always being changed and improved upon, that is accomplished at the level of either work or consumption.
All information and proposals are freely available to everyone, those inside and outside of the council, so that the social cost of each proposal can be determined and voted on.
Long-term plans such as structuring public transportation, residential zones and recreational areas, are to be proposed by delegates and approved by direct democracy i.
Hahnel argues that a participatory economy will return empathy to our purchasing choices. Capitalism removes the knowledge of how and by whom a product was made:S’il est facile de trouver des renseignements sur les grandes lignes d’un business plan, il est bien moins aisé de se procurer un modèle directement adapté à son barnweddingvt.com entendu, chaque business plan est différent, cependant, on peut retrouver une trame commune chez chacun.
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