Abstract Because of their evolving nature and inherent scientific uncertainties, outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases can be associated with considerable fear in the general public or in specific communities, especially when illness and deaths are substantial. Mitigating fear and discrimination directed toward persons infected with, and affected by, infectious disease can be important in controlling transmission.
Definition[ edit ] In neoclassical economics theory, labor market discrimination is defined as the different treatment of two equally qualified individuals on account of their genderrace agedisabilityreligionetc.
Discrimination is harmful since it affects the economic outcomes of equally productive workers directly and indirectly through feedback effects. Differences in outcomes such as earnings, job placement that cannot be attributed to worker qualifications are attributed to discriminatory treatment.
It is important to note that the process is as important as the outcomes. Civil Rights Act ofthe movement towards equality has slowed down after the mids, especially more in gender terms than racial terms.
Many studies find that qualification differences do not explain more than a portion of the earnings differences. The portion of the earnings gap that cannot be explained by qualifications is then attributed to discrimination.
One prominent formal procedure for identifying the explained and unexplained portions of the gender wage differentials or wage gap is the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition procedure. This approach has the advantage of studying economic outcomes of groups with very similar qualifications.
However, it is difficult to determine the extent to which this is the result of racial discrimination. Although the gap in earnings between men and women was very small immediately after graduation, it widened in 15 years to the point that women earned 60 percent of what men earned.
Even after factoring in women's choice of working for fewer hours, and worker qualifications and other factors, such as grades in law school and detailed work history data, in men were ahead of women by 11 percent in their earnings, which might be attributed to discrimination.
Other studies on relatively homogeneous group of college graduates produced a similar unexplained gap, even for the highly educated women, such as Harvard MBAs in the United States.
One such study focused on gender wage differences in between the college graduates. The researchers took college major, GPA grade point average and the educational institution the graduates attended into consideration.
Yet, even after these factors were accounted for, there remained a percent pay gap based on gender. Another study based on a survey of all college graduates had similar results for black and white women regarding gender differences in earnings.
However, the results of earnings were mixed for Hispanic and Asian women when their earnings were compared to white, non-Hispanic men. A study looked at Harvard graduates. The results showed 30 percent of the wage gap was unexplained. Therefore, although not all of the unexplained gaps attribute to discrimination, the results of the studies signal gender discrimination, even if these women are highly educated.
Human capitalists argue that measurement and data problems contribute to this unexplained gap. In order to examine racial discrimination, the Urban Institute relied on a matched pairs study. The job position was entry-level.
Thus, they matched pairs of black and white men and pairs of Hispanic and non-Hispanic men as testers. The testers applied for the advertised openings for the new positions. In addition, they went through training sessions for the interviews.
If both people in the pair were offered the job or if both were rejected, the conclusion was there was no discrimination.
However, if one person from the pair was given the job while the other was rejected, then they concluded there was discrimination. The Institute found out that black men were three times more likely to be refused for a job compared to white men; while the Hispanic men were three times more likely to be discriminated.
The percentage for interviews was by 10 percent more for the white testers. Among those interviewed, 50 percent white women were offered the job, while only 11 percent of black candidates received jobs offers.
The white testers were also offered higher pay for the same job in cases where the same job was also offered to the black testers.
The pay difference was 15 cents per hour more for the white candidates. Furthermore, black women were "steered" toward lower level jobs, while white women were even given some higher-level positions that were unadvertised.
A matched-pairs study of homogeneous group audit experiment was done in the restaurants in PhiladelphiaUnited States.
SARS-related Fear, Stigmatization, and Discrimination. While persons, agencies, and governments sought to identify modes of transmission, strategies for disease containment, and treatment for SARS, fear spread unchecked throughout the global community. In creating a rapid public health intervention to mitigate behaviors and practices associated with SARS-related fear, the team recognized the need to address the experiences of persons at greatest risk for experiencing SARS-related fear, stigma, and discrimination. An example of gender discrimination would be if a woman was denied a job, or was paid less than a man would be paid for the same position. Or, that a female received a lower compensation and benefits package solely on the basis of her being female. In the United States, discriminating against anyone on the basis of their physical sex or gender is .
Also, the resumes were written in a three-level scale based on the qualifications of the pseudo applicants and resumes for each qualification level were delivered in three separate weeks. The results showed that male applicants were favored significantly.Students will learn about discrimination and the many ways people are discriminated against by describing how a narrator s or speaker s point of view influences how events are described.
meeting danger without fear; bravery; fearlessness. dreams: think of something as possible; imagine. I am the catalyst for improvement. I am not swayed. The Need for Intersectionality in Promoting LGBT Immigrant Health Equity Jun 20, · Health Policy Hub · Alberto Gonzalez This blog is part of a series that will highlight how structural racism in the health care system negatively affects the health of .
In creating a rapid public health intervention to mitigate behaviors and practices associated with SARS-related fear, the team recognized the need to address the experiences of persons at greatest risk for experiencing SARS-related fear, . Discrimination is bred through fear.
Fear of change, for ourselves, our families, and our loved ones. It is the result of a culture, a society, and the beliefs that the group has. Much of the racism in the past was built upon this, since many people only lived with their own ethnic group, a. Fear and Discrimination: Bad for Workers, Bad for Business By Kylar W.
Broadus Most people would agree that at the heart of everyone's "American dream" is . Specifically, individuals may express fear related to being on an airplane with a Muslim American.
However, individuals did not express negative attitudes toward Muslim Americans in most other situations. Report on hate crimes and discrimination against Arab Americans: The post-September 11 backlash, September 11, October 11, .