Rand Corp Franklin A. Thomas, head of Ford Found. Trust, granddgtr of fdr.
Anoxia will hit the crew when the atmospheric pressure drops to what pressure? From Living In Space by G. Artwork by Rick Sternbach. Low pressure is attractive; since it uses less mass and the atmosphere will escape more slowly through a meteor hole.
Unfortunately the required higher oxygen level make living in such an environment as hazardous as chain-smoking inside a napalm factory. NASA found that out the hard way in the Apollo 1 tragedy. Since then NASA always uses high pressure, they use low pressure in space suits only because they cannot avoid it.
This does raise a new problem.
There is a chance that the high-oxygen atmosphere will allow a meteor to ignite a fire inside the suit. There are other problems as well, the impossibility of air-cooling electronic components and the risk of long-term health problems being two.
Setting up the optimal breathable atmosphere is complicated. A more annoying than serious problem with low pressure atmospheres is the fact that they preclude hot beverages and soups.
It is impossible to heat water to a temperature higher than the local boiling point. And the lower the pressure, the lower the boiling point.
You may have seen references to this in the directions on certain packaged foods, the "high altitude" directions. The temperature can be increased if one uses a pressure cooker, but safety inspectors might ask if it is worth having a potentially explosive device onboard a spacecraft just so you can have hot coffee.
Human-breathable mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen as a function of barometric pressure the blue area.
Below inspired partical pressure pO2 60 mm Hg you suffer hypoxiaabove pO2 mm Hg you suffer oxygen toxicityabove pN2 mm Hg nitrogen narcosis From Habitable Planets for Manmodifed by me. It occurs when a person has been breathing an atmosphere containing inert gases generally nitrogen or helium and they move into an environment with lower pressure.
This is commonly when they put on a soft space suit or the room suffers an explosive decompression. It has all sorts of nasty effects, ranging from joint pain and rashes to paralysis and death.
The large joints can suffer deep pain from mild to excruciating. The brain can have sudden mood or behavior changes, confusion, memory loss, hallucinations, seizures, and unconsciousness.
The legs can become paralyzed. Headache, fatigue, malaise, loss of balance, vertigo, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, shortness of breath, and urinary or fecal incontinence: Why does it happen? Well, imagine a can of your favorite carbonated soda beverage. Shake it up, and nothing happens.
But when you open it, the soda explodes into foam and sprays everywhere. When you open the container of shaken soda, you lower the pressure on the soda fluid. This allows all the dissolved carbon dioxide in the soda to un-dissolve, creating zillions of carbon dioxide bubbles, forming a foam.
Please note that sometimes the bends can occur if one moves from one habitat to another that has the same pressure, but a different ratio of breathing mix the technical term is "Isobaric counterdiffusion". Spacecraft of different nations or models could use different breathing mixes, beware.
In fact, rival astromilitaries might deliberately utilize odd-ball breathing mixes, to make life difficult for enemy boarding parties invading their ships. The bends can be prevented by slow decompressionand by prebreathing. Or by breathing an atmosphere containing no inert gases.
Slow decompression works great for deep-sea divers but NASA does not favor it for space flight. An atmosphere with no inert gases pure oxygen is an insane fire risk. NASA does not allow a pure oxygen atmosphere in spacecraft and space stations, but will allow it in space suit in a desperate attempt to lower the suit pressure to the point where the astronaut can move their limbs instead of being trapped into a posture like a star-fish.
So NASA astronauts do a lot of prebreathing. This flushes nitrogen out of the blood stream."A Chicken in Every Pot" This famous USA political campaign slogan originated in 16th century France. It is attributed to Henri IV. The promise remains constant.
Human astronauts are such a bother when it comes to space exploration. The space environment is pretty much the opposite of the conditions that humans evolved for, to the point where an unprotected human exposed to space will die horribly in about ninety seconds flat. The Rothschild Bloodline.
Financial Wizzards & Wealthy Cults (The numbers behind some sentences and words () are references to the bibliography list at the end of the article of course). The definitive biography of the great soldier-statesman by the New York Times bestselling author of The Storm of War—winner of the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for Biography and the Grand Prix of the Fondation Napoleon Austerlitz, Borodino, Waterloo: his battles are among the greatest in history, but Napoleon Bonaparte was far more than a military genius and astute leader.
vol 6 pg 1. A Philosophy of Education Book 1. Introduction.
These are anxious days for all who are engaged in education. We rejoiced in the fortitude, valour and devotion shown by our men in the War and recognize that these things are due to the Schools as well as to the fact that England still breeds "very valiant creatures.".
After being taken down twice by Blogger within a single week, we got the message: It’s Time To Go. Gates of Vienna has moved to a new address.