Embodied vs Traditional Cognitive Science Consider four evocative examples of phenomena that have motivated embodied cognitive science. We typically gesture when we speak to one another, and gesturing facilitates not just communication but language processing itself McNeill There are neurons, mirror neurons, that fire not only when we undertake an action, but do so when we observe others undertaking the same actions Rizzolatti and Craighero We are often able to perform cognitive tasks, such as remembering, more effectively by using our bodies and even parts of our surrounding environments to off-load storage and simplify the nature of the cognitive processing Donald
This hypothesis has been extended to other threatening minority populations, such as ethnic minorities and immigrant populations. Most research assessing the racial threat hypothesis has specifically examined blacks as a perceived threat. Perceptual hypothesis particular, much research in the field of criminology and criminal justice has tested the effect of racial threat on criminal justice outcomes.
In recent years, the measure of racial threat has been expanded to include perceptual measures of threat, by asking individuals, for example, to report their level of agreement with statements that Perceptual hypothesis blacks as threats to public order and safety.
This hypothesis has also provided useful insights into the ways in which other formal measures of social control e. The purpose of the present work is to direct readers to key sources for further exploration, critique, and advancement of the racial threat hypothesis and its extensions.
General Overviews The racial threat hypothesis originated in Blalockwhich argued as the relative size of racial and ethnic minority group increases, members of the majority group perceive a growing threat. Blalock contends that this perceived threat can take on two different forms.
The first is economic threat. That is, as increased numbers of blacks compete for jobs, housing, and other economic resources, whites increasingly feel their economic well-being and dominance are threatened. The second is political threat which occurs as blacks enhance their political power, causing whites to feel their political hegemony is threatened.
In response to any form of minority threat, it is hypothesized that whites will demand intensified social control to maintain dominant standing. In addition, Blalock maintained that the relationship between racial threat and social control would be nonlinear, and the nature of the nonlinear relationship is different in contexts of political versus economic threat.
In particular, under conditions of economic threat, efforts geared toward maintaining economic dominance will increase with a decelerating rate.
Under conditions of political threat, however, controls aimed at maintaining political power will increase with an accelerating rate. Finally, Blalock contended that racial segregation may operate as an effective way to reduce racial threat and a particular form of control imposed on minorities.
For example, Horowitz suggests in contexts where the black population outnumbers or reaches equivalence with the white population, use of social control against blacks should be more difficult because blacks are able to mobilize resources and political power.
Liska provides an important theoretical integration of key studies testing the racial threat hypothesis. Toward a theory of minority-group relations. A must-read for those interested in the racial threat hypothesis.
In this book, Blalock presented general theoretical propositions in the field of minority-group relations, and he focused primarily on competition, status, and economic factors that relate to discrimination.
Ethnic groups in conflict.
Berkeley and Los Angeles: Horowitz argues that membership in an ethnic group satisfies an inherent psychological need to belong, and ethnic conflict may occur when this need is threatened by another group or by someone within the group.
Social threat and social control.Primary tendencies in perceptual organization Gestalt principles. Gestalt theory was meant to have general applicability; its main tenets, however, were induced almost exclusively from observations on visual perception. Whatever their ultimate theoretical significance, these observations have been raised to the level of general principles.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system.
For example, vision involves light striking. Perceptual illusions provide a great way to experience the template matching process first hand. (That is the “hypothesis generator” box—when the template is matched, the hypothesis is. Perceptual Learning Style and Learning Proficiency: A Test of the Hypothesis Gregory P.
Kra¨tzig and Katherine D. Arbuthnott University of Regina. Figure 1 - Box When an observer views a two-dimensional picture on paper, he often interprets it as a three-dimensional figure.
For example, most people, after viewing Figure 1, would agree that it was a barnweddingvt.com many would view it as two squares connected with diagonal lines, a square surrounded by irregular planar figures, or any other planar figure. Psychology Definition of PERCEPTUAL CYCLE HYPOTHESIS: the theory that cognition impacts perceptual exploration but is thereby changed by real-world encounters, cultivating a cycle of attention, cognition, comp.