SHARE Forty years ago, a generation of women entered the workforce with unprecedented choices and few models for guidance. Now that these women have reached mid-life and those behind them are just entering this phase, we can begin to define what a " mid-life crisis of identity " looks like for women with careers. In the past, the major shift in identity that women faced was the transition from mother to freedom. Yet the reasons for the shifts differ for women.
Methodology[ edit ] The comparative method is — together with the experimental methodthe statistical method and the case study approach — one of the four fundamental scientific methods which can be used to test the validity of theoretical propositions, often with the use of empirical data i.
Most Similar Systems Design, or MSSD, is very helpful since it compares similar objects, it keeps many otherwise confusing and irrelevant variables in the research constant. In a basic sense, MSSD starts out with similar variables between subjects and tries to figure out why the outcome is different between the subjects.
The main shortcoming that is said about this method is that when comparing countries, since there are such a limited number of them, all potential factors of explanation can never be kept altogether constant.
As such, despite many possibilities of variables, there are only a limited number of cases to apply them to. There are two methods of applying MSSD, the first being a stricter application and the second being a more loose application.
The stricter application implies that a researcher would choose various countries that have a number of similar variables, also called control variables, and would only differ from each other by one single independent variable. The looser application uses the same general concept, but the researcher chooses countries that have similar characteristics but those characteristics are not strictly matched to a set of control variables.
Because of the complications of so many variables but not enough cases, a second method was devolved to be used in conjunction with MSSD.
MDSD uses differences between countries instead of similarities between countries as variables because social scientists have found that differences between countries do not explain their possible similarities if they have any.
A more basic idea of MDSD is it takes subjects with different variables within them and tries to figure out why the outcomes between them are similar in the end. When using MDSD as a comparative research method, scientists look at changing interactions between systems in countries and then after all data is collected, the results are compared between the different systems.
If the results obtained from this research differ between each other, the researcher must move up to the system level and switch to the MSSD method. When using MSSD as a comparative research approach, there is the independent and depend variable that get introduced, specifically the dependent variable being something that is common in all the research subjects and the independent variable which would be the differing characteristic between the research subjects.
MSSD is more precise and strict at finding the differing point along with similarities, but MDSD does not have so many variables and only focuses on finding one similarity or difference between a wide selection of systems. Thus he distinguishes six different kinds of "constitutions":Over the last generation, profound changes have occurred in the relationship between sexuality and reproduction, the assumption that pregnancy leads to parenthood, and the equation of parenthood with loving parental ties.
Redefining MidLife Crisis Submitted by Anonymous on October 10, - am I would be very interested in hearing about what may be, in my opinion, the new face of mid-life crisis in women. At midlife w/less time left to make life changes, If midlife crisis is rare, is middle adulthood actually a stage of development?
Some believe the midlife transition is not stage-like. No qualitatively different thinking, feeling, and PSY Chapter 16 PPT A Statement of the U.S.
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"Midlife crisis" is the most common that takes attention when we talk about middle adulthood. Papalia et al. states that changes in personality and lifestyle come together to attribute to the crisis, however, whether or not these changes lead to crisis depends on individuals.